Boston Blog Posts

March 5, 2020

Boston Marathon Monuments

The Boston Marathon Bombing monuments have been completed on Boylston Street. These monuments remember the lives that were lost on that day.

The bombings killed 29-year-old Krystle Campbell, 23-year-old Lingzi Lu, and 8-year-old Martin Richard, all of whom had gone to the finish line to watch the race.

First Site Marathon
Monument at the First Bomb Explosion site.

Second Marthon Bomb Monument
Monument at the Second Bomb Explosion site.

Eight Facts About the Monuments

Project cost $2 Million dollars and took four years of planning and developing

It was supposed to be ready by last year's Marathon - which was the 5th anniversary. The project was met with last-minute design changes and delays. It was officially completed on August 2019.

The Monument was designed by Pablo Eduardo, who also designed the statue of former Mayor Kevin White in Faneuil Hall.

One pillar stands at the site of the first bomb, where Campbell was killed, and two pillars at the site of the second bomb, where Richard and Lu were killed.

When you're at the monument, notice the area outside the inner circle, here is the second circle of a different shade of granite, representing the 16 people who lost limbs and the others who suffered wounds that day. A third, larger circle, of yet another shade of granite, represents all those who were in the immediate area.

The circle is broken with a large black diamond - a symbol of violence done on that day.

Each Pillar is a special tribute the three deaths:
Martin Richard's pillar - Stones taken from Franklin Park, where he loved to play.
Lingzi Lu's pillar - Stones from Boston University, where she was going to school.
Krystle Campbell's pillar - Stones from Spectacle Island, where she worked and enjoy visiting.

Near the monument are Cherry trees that will bloom each year around the time of the Boston Marathon.

February 27, 2020

Sacco and Vanzetti Plaster Sculptor Mold

In 1920, Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti are two Italian immigrants who were charged with murdering a payroll clerk and a guard.

Many people felt that they did not receive a fair trial. There were charges that the prosecution suppressed evidence and the judge might have some bias to their anarchist views.

Dispite large protests and request from around the world, the pair were executed on August 23, 1927, in the state prison in Charlestown.

In the Boston Public Library, there is a large plaster sculptor to remember the two men.

Gutzon Borglum Plaster Work

Things I Learned about the Plaster Sculptor Mold

President Calvin Coolidge denied a stay of execution for Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti on the same day that he dedicated the Mount Rushmore National Memorial in Keystone, South Dakota.

Gutzon Borglum, who it is most associated with the creation of the Mount Rushmore National Memorial, was not happy with President Calvin Coolidge's decision not to stay the execution. He volunteered his time and services to create a special plaster sculptor to remember the two Italian immigrants.

A special committee tried to present the Plaster Sculptor and bronze sculpture to several Massachusetts officials in 1937, 1947 and 1957. Each time they were turned down. The politicians didn't want to be part of the Sacco-Vanzetti story.

At the 1947 request, Eleanor Roosevelt and Albert Einstein made public statements that the state display the sculpture.

Sometime after the last attempt both the plaster cast and the original bronze sculpture went missing. The plaster mold turned up mysteriously in 1960 at the home of Aldino Felicani, a Defense Committee treasurer. He donated the cast to the Community Church in Copley Square. The original bronze sculpture whereabouts are still not known.

In 1977, Michael Dukakis issued an official proclamation indicating that Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti did not get a fair trial.

In 1997, on the 50th anniversary of the executions, Boston Mayor Tom Menino and then-acting governor Paul Cellucci formally accepted the sculpture at the Boston Public Library.

The plaster sculptor is now located next to the Wiggin Gallery and the Rare Book Room of the Boston Public Library at Copley Square.

The area of the Wiggin Gallery and Rare Bookroom is currently under construction. I have been told that the public won't have access to see the Plaster Sculptor Mold until sometime in 2021.

Three aluminum copies were made from the Plaster mold. One now hangs in the Community Church in Copley Square, another one is at the Gardner Jackson Library at Brandeis University, and a bronze can be found at the Gutzon Borglum Historical Center near Mount Rushmore.

Text on the Plaster Sculptor

The paster mold is seven feet long and three and a half feet high, it showed the men in profile next to a quote from Vanzetti's final prison letter.

What I wish more than all in this last hour of agony is that our case and our fate may be understood in their real being and serve as a tremendous lesson to the force of freedom so that our suffering and death will not have been in vain.

Trial of Sacco and Vanzetti

More informaiton about the trial and it's impact in Boston's History will be in a future blog post.

February 20, 2020

Early Signs of Spring

Boston has had a mild winter this year. While, February 5th is the official the middle of Winter. Many Bostonians feel that its usually not until the end of February when you get a sense of the kind of winter it will be.

Yesterday I saw an early sign of Spring in Boston's Back Bay:

Back Bay02192020
Yes, those are early Spring flowers popping out of the ground.

This was taken on St. Botolph Street, which is located next to Coply Place mall.

How Much snow accumulate in Boston?

According to Current Results Boston tends to get very little snow in March and April.

Fun Facts About Snow and Boston

  Fun Fact: in the 123 year history of the Boston Marathon there has never ever been a cancelation because of the amount of snow that was on the ground.

 Fun Fact: According to the Farmers' Almanac's Extended Forecast 2020 the Northeast is expected to more than the average amount of snow fall for the remainer of the season.

 Fun Fact: The most snow that has fallen in Boston was during the 2014-2015 Winter season when 108.6-inches of snow fell. It was also one of the most challenging times for the MBTA Commuter rail as there were numerous train delays and cancelations.

 Fun Fact: One of the worst days was February 17th, 2015, where trains were experiecing more than 60-minute delays.

February 13, 2020

Poems of the Southwest Corridor Path

As you walk from the Back Bay Station to the Copley Mall, you may notice some stone markers with words on them. No this isn't a graveyard, and these aren't a monument to soldiers. These are the poems and stories of Southwest Corridor Path.

Southwest Corridor Poems

Five Things

  • There are 18 poems and stories along with the 4.1 mile-long parks Southwest Corridor Path. The trail begins at the south entrance of the Back Bay station and ends at the Forest Hills T-station.
  • The poems and stores were selected by community groups that selected the best ones for that area. Winners not only got their work engraved in stone but they also were given $1,000.
  • The stones were put up in the early days of October in 1987, (There doesn't appear to be an official ceremony.)
  • Orginally Funded by the Department of Transportation's Urban Mass Transportation Administration ( now called the Federal Transit Administration) as part of the Arts in Transit - The Southwest Corridor. (Comrehensive pubic art program manages by UrbanArts, Inc. for the MBTA.)
  • The poem "If My Boundary Stops Here" was written by Ruth Whitman. She wrote this poem as she imagined the journey of Tamsen Donner (Donner Party) to California in 1846. The Donner party attempted to travel to California but ended up snowed in the for six months in the Sierra Nevada.

If My Boundary Stops Here

Poem By Ruth Whitman

If my boundary stops here
I have daughters to draw new maps on the world.
They will draw the lines of my face.
They will draw with my gestures my voice.
They will speak my words thinking they have invented them.

They will invent them.
They will invent me.
I will be planted again and again.
I will wake in the eyes of their children’s children.
They will speak my words.

Counterpoint by Jane Barnes

This is part of the "Counterpoint" story on several of the stones:

Tom and Kate were walking home and Kate, the more responsible one, was scowling Tom for not having paid their rent on time. They argued walking down First Street going up the stairs to their apartment building and inside while they took off their coats.

"But Karie," he said, "I wanted to make sure it had cleared first."

"But you had four clear business days, Tom count them!"

Kate flung her coat on a hook in the vestibule and went to the piano. She opened the music to Bach's First Interception which she was working on. She began to plan the opening as she said, "And anyway, that'll be the second time we been a few days late. It's embarrassing."

Tom was walking around the living room turning on the lights while she played. "To who?" he said. "The super? The accounts are done by some old guy in a skyscraper. It's not like we rent from a real person."

February 6, 2020

Massachusetts Enters the Union

It was on this date in 1788 that Massachusetts officially ratified the Constitution of the United States and became part of the Union.

Massachusetts Map

Five Fun Facts About Massachusetts Entering the Union

  • The Constitution was ratified in the Old State House. Every year on July 4th, at 10am the Constitution is read from the balcony.
  • The Massachusetts Constitution was adopted in 1780.
  • John Hancock was elected as the first governor on October 25th, 1780 and was the sitting governor when Massachusetts ratified the Constitution.
  • Population in Massachusetts was 378,787 in 1790 (The first census)
  • Boston was the third largest city in America - New York was number one and Philadelphia was number 2. Today Greater Boston is the 21st largest city in America.

Massachusetts Compromise

Today is also when the Bill of Rights became a requirement of the United States Constitution.

Many people may not know that Massachusetts didn't easily adopt the Constitution. Anti-Federalists felt that the Constitution didn't give many individual rights. It took a lot of convincing by notable Federalists John Hancock and Samuel Adams to get the members of the Massachusetts Constitutional Convention to accept the United States Constitution.

The Massachusetts Compromise was to amend the Constitution with the "Bill of Rights." A set of rights that ensured that the Constitution didn't give powers to the elite and remove the individual ideas that so many people fought for.

The compromise help ratify the Constitution on this day in 1788 by a vote of 187 to 168.

Five other States soon passed the Constitution with four of them using the Massachusetts model of recommending amendments along with the ratification.

The Constitution was officially ratified on June 21st, 1788. George Washington inauguration was on April 30, 1789.

January 30, 2020

A. Philip Randolph Statue

In the Back Bay Station, near the ticket counter, is a larger than life-size statue of A. Philip Randolph.

Brief Background About A. Philip Randolph

Asa Philip Randolph (April 15, 1889 - May 16, 1979) was a civil rights organizer. In 1925, he organized several Harlem railroad sleeping car porters into the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters. It became the first black union to be recognized by the American Federation of Labor.

He directed several marches on Washington, including the famous 1963 march with Martin Luther King Jr where he delivers the famous "I Have a dream speech."

You can learn a lot more about A. Philip Randolph life on the A. Philip Randolph Institute Website. There is also a short video of A. Philip Randolph on YouTube.

Philip Randolph

Fun Facts about the Statue

Here are some fun facts that I found about this statue:

Statue was Commissioned in 1986.

Statue was unveiled on Saturday, October 8, 1988 - as part of the redesign of the Back Bay station. In attendance was Transportation Secretary Frederick P. Salvucci, James F O'Leary general manager of the MBTA, Norman Hill president of the A. Philip Randolph Institute, Richard Womack director of the civil rights program of the AFL-CIO. Also present was John Dukakis the governor's son. At least 400 people were at the ceremony.

23 retired members of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters were also in attendance.

Governor Michael Dukakis wasn't able to attend the ceremony as he was running for President of the United States.

In October 1987, Governor Michael Dukakis dedicated a station on the Orange Line to A. Philip Randolph.

Back Bay station was select for the statue because many of the early members of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters settled in the area.

The entire waiting area is named after A. Philip Randolph. The purpose is to turn the space from a waiting room into an education room.

The statue was done by Tina Allen. This was her first project. You can see her signature on the pants fold on the shoe that is touching the ground.

Text at the Base of the Statue

At the base of the statue is the following text, this is a bit hard to read since over the years, people have been sitting on the words.

Salvation for a race, nation, or class must come from within. Freedom is never granted; it is won. Justice is never given; it is exacted. Freedom and justice must be struggled for by the oppressed of all lands and races, and the struggle must be continuous, for freedom is never a final fact, but a continuing evolving process to higher and higher levels of human, social, economic, political and religious relationships.

Tina Allen Signature on the Statue

Shoe Signature

January 23, 2020

Henry Bradford Endicott tablet

At the Massachusetts State House, near the Executive Wing, is a commemorative plaque for Henry Bradford Endicott.

Henry B. Endicott was an entrepreneur that came from a poor family and built an empire to be one of the richest men in the world. He built his wealth through the Endicott Johnson Corporation - a shoe manufacturer.

Henry B. Endicott gave back to the community:

  • He donated shoes from the Endicott Johnson Corporation to those in need
  • He arranged a relief train to provide needed assistance to those impacted by the Halifax Explosion.
  • He was appointed as a food administrator and the executive manager of the Massachusetts Committee on Public Safety during World War I.

You can learn a lot more about Henry Bradford Endicott in the book about him, Henry B. Endicott: A Brief Memoir of His Life and His Services to the State and Nation which is in the public domain.

Henry Endcott

Six Fun Facts About the Plaque

Here some interesting things that I learned about this plaque:

This tablet was made by the T. F. McGann & Sons Founders, Boston Massachusetts. They also did the Marvin Goody Memorial in the Boston Public Gardens and the "Winged Victory" statue at the Boston's World War 2 Memorial to name a few of the local work. (T.F. McGann signature is on the bottom right on the plaque.)

Henry Hudson Kitson was the tablet sculptor - you can see the signature on the left side.

The tablet was unveiled by Massachusetts Governor Channing H. Cox on December 15, 1921 - 672 days after Henry B. Endicott died.

The Governor said at the ceremony, "It is then high privilege to accept on behalf of the Commonwealth this beautiful memorial tablet, authorized by law and made possible by devoted friends and coworkers-his fellow-citizens. It records a great service nobly rendered. It deserves its place on the walls of this historic hall."

In 1920, the Massachusetts Legislature pass an act to appropriate $400 for a memorial in the State House. ($5,189.58 in 2019) An additional $2,500 was raised by 53 private citizens.

The bronze tablet is 69" by 41" by 3"

Text of the Plaque

Henry Bradford Endicott

Humanitarian Loyal Citizen
Patriot

State and Federal
Food Administrator
Executive of the Massachusetts
Committee on Public Safety
February 10, 1917 - November 21, 1915
IN A TIME OF GREAT NATIONAL EMERGENCY AND CIVIC STRESS A LEADER OF THE HOME ARMY HE PLACED HIS EMINENT ABILITIES HIS ENERGIES HIS LIFE AT THE SERVICE OF THE STAT AND NATION INSPIRING HIS FELLOW MEN TO SUPREME EFFORT IN BEHALF OF COUNTRY OF PRINCIPLE OF RIGHT IN GRATEFUL AND LOVING TRIBUTE TO HIS MEMORY THIS TABLET IS DEDICATED BY THE CITIZENS OF THE COMMONWEALTH.
Born September 11, 1857 Died February 12, 1920.

January 16, 2020

Jean Louis Lefebvre De Cheverus

Jean Louis Lefebvre De Cheverus was the first Bishop of Boston. He was Bishop from 1810 until 1823.

On the building at 110 Frankin Street is a tablet where his home was in the early 1800s.

Cheverus Homestead

Tablet Text

Text On the Tablet
On this site stood the residence of 
Jean Lefebvre DeCheverus
First Roman Catholic Bishop
of Boston
Beloved by Protestant and Catholic AlikeBorn in France 1768
Made Bishop 1808
Recelled to France in 1823
Later made Cardinal Archbishop
of Bordeaux where he died in 1836

"His thoughts were as a pyramid upheld
on whose far top anget stood and smiled 
yet in his heart he was a child"

This tablet places by the city of Boston 1925

This tablet restored by the George M. Henderson Foundation

Five Fun Facts

Interesting facts about Jean Louis Lefebvre De Cheverus

Born on January 28, 1768 in Meyaeene, France,

Exiled to England during the French Revolution and soon came to America in 1796 to do some missionary work.

He spent much of the time in Maine with Penobscot Indians (He managed to speak their language.)

In August 8, 1810, Pop Plus VII made Jean Louse Cheverus first bishop of Boston. (Official documents didn't arrive until November 1, 1810)

He was loved by everyone in New England, people would come from all over to listen to him speak.

He was a friend to President John Adams and a frequent advisor to the Massachusetts Legislature.

On September 26, 1823, he returned to France on a promise to his family. King Louis XVIII requested him to return because of Jean Louse Cheverus poor health.

Before leaving Boston, he donated all his possessions including several books that help start the Boston Athenaeum. (You can still see the collection today!)

While in France he became the Archbishop of Bordeau.

He died on July 19, 1836 in Bordeaux, France

January 9, 2020

Boston Landmark Map

Boston is a great historic city. It's known as the "birthplace of the American Revolution" because many historic events took place here.

There are hundreds of historical sites of the American Revolution for visitors to explore.

You can find all the "Official Historical Sites" on the Boston Landmark Commission Map.

Boston Landmark Map

This is a useful map to see all the important places to check out. Simply click on an object and get more information about that location.

You may notice that many "popular" spots are missing from this map, such as Paul Revere House, Old North Church, etc. Many of those sites were protected before the Boston Landmark Commission existed.

Boston Landmark Commission

Since 1977, The Boston Landmark Commission job is to help preserve important buildings and locations around the city. Its role is not just limited to century-old architecture but all historic structures.

You can get the download the status of petitions from the City of Boston.

Getting listed by the Boston Landmark Commission is an honor. This is their explanation of the difference between the National Register and the Boston Landmark Commission Landmarks:

Listings on the National Register of Historic Places is an honorary designation by the federal government. The listing recognizes the site is historically significant at the local, state, or national level. Projects involving federal or state funding are reviewed, but there is no protection against demolition.

Designated Boston Landmarks, including buildings in Historic Districts, have a higher level of protection. Commissioners must review and approve any changes. They base their decisions on guidelines developed through a public process.

January 2, 2020

Elephant Memorial at Fenway Park

Long before crowdsourcing became a thing - In 1914, the children of Boston help raise enough money to place three Elephants at the Franklin Park Zoo.

There is a marker at Fenway Park to remember the occasion when the Elephants first met the children of Boston. It was the largest gathering at Fenway Park. (Due to current fire rules - this looks to stand forever.)

Elephant Prints2
Elephant Prints on the Ground in the Grandstand area

Things I Learned

  • Boston Post's publisher Edwin A. Grozier came up with the idea of having children collect money for the city to buy the elephants.
  • Only nickel and pennies were accepted in boxes that were put in stores all around the city.
  • The city raised: $6,000. ($151,948.45 in 2018) If they were all pennies it would be weigh 38 lbs.
  • 70,000 Children and Parents attended the event on June 6, 1914 - the gates were to open at 9am, but such a large crowd gathered that they opened it up early.
  • The elephants spent the night at the park before they came out on the field.
  • In 1914, the Average Baseball attendance at Fenway Park was 6,055!

History Fun Facts

  • Babe Ruth would joined the Red Sox a month later - July 11, 1914
  • Largest crowd for a Baseball game at Fenway Park was 49,000 on September 23, 1935.
  • Largest Concert crowd for a Paul McCartney concert was 36,064 on July 10, 2013.

Remembering the Elephants

  • Mollie died on April 22, 1921 of a heart attack- Harvard's Natural Museum has the skeleton. (Some media outlets called her Molly)
  • Tony died on January 19, 1939 of cancer
  • Waddy died November 5, 1940 - one of the longest elephants to live in captivity.

Sign at the Park

Elephant Pennnies

December 26, 2019

Best Boston Blog Post of 2019

There were a lot of great Boston blog posts in 2019. It was really hard to find the ones that stood out more than others.

After reviewing all the posts, I was able to identify the posts that made a big impact on readers this year. Nine Outstanding Posts in 2019

Goals for 2019

The tradition continues in 2020 - Every Thursday expect to see another exciting Boston post.

I will focus on better photos, unique stories and focus more post in 2020 to visitors to Boston.

If you have any post that you would like to see, let me know in the comments below.

December 19, 2019

Prudental Garage Parking

This is a wonderful time of the year to be in Boston at night. Granted that it is cold, but you should miss all the bright lights around the city.

There are plenty of places to park in Boston, one of the largest parking garages in Boston is at the Prudential Mall.

Prudential Christmas2019

Parking Cost Weekdays

0 to 1 Hour $12.00
1 to 1.5 Hours $20.00
1.5 to 2 Hours $30.00
2 to 24 Hours $42.00

Parking Cost Weeknights

Enter after 5:00PM and exit by 3:00AM
$15.00 flat fee with validated parking ticket.

You can validate your parking ticket at any venue in the Prudential Mall. (You do need to spend at least $10) Dunkin Donuts is included - which is perfect for the ride home!

Tips with Parking at the Pru

Pay attention to where you enter the Mall - there are many elevators/escalators that will get you up in the Mall.

The garage can be confusing if you go back in using a different elevator. (You may end up like the classic Seinfeld episode where they get lost in the Garage.)

Some Mall Entrances are in stores that may close early. Make sure to read signs that let you know when that entrance is closed.

Most of the first floor of the garage is reserved for monthly parking holders. When you enter the garage just go to the second floor.

The best entrance into the garage is off of Huntington Ave.

To get back on the MassPike, use the Dalton Street Exit, take a left on Boylston Street and then a right on Massachusetts Ave. Then stay in the left lane for the Mass Pike Entrance - West Bound.

December 12, 2019

William Channing House

Last year I wrote about the William Ellery Channing statue at the corner of Arlington Street and Boylston Street.

William Ellery Channing lived not too far from the Arlington Street Church where he was a well-respected speaker. His house was located on Beacon Hill - 83 Mount Vernon Street - about a 15-min walk to the Church.

There is a small marker to let people know about the previous owner.

Channing House Marker

Six Things I learned about this house

  • This is private residence no tours are offered at this location. There are 6 apartments at this address.
  • The building was last sold on June 15, 2018 for $8,550,000 or $913 per square foot. It has 6-bedrroms and 6-baths.
  • It was converted to a multi-unit family house in 1984.
  • The house was built in 1834 and, as the sign indicates, he lived here from 1835 to 1842. (This means he was the first owner of the property.)
  • He wrote the book Slavery while living at this location.
  • Mr. Channing would often take walks with his neighbors around the Boston Commons and talked about various Unitarian views. Sometimes the conversation would end up in his sermons at the Arlington Street Church.
December 5, 2019

Skinniest House in Boston

The skinniest house in Boston is located down the street from the Old North Church. After you leave the Old North Church, head up the hill on Hull Street. You'll want to stay on the right side of the road. Keep an eye on the left side for 44 Hull Street - it won't be hard to miss. This is the smallest house in the City of Boston.

Boston Skinny House

Seven Things I Learned about this Location

Joseph Eustis, a shipbuilder, built the house in 1804 - Listed as one of the 100 oldest building in Boston. (Some records have the house being built in 1884.)

He was forced to build the house of that size because his brother built a larger house on a property by their deceased Dad. He challenged Joseph to try to build a house on such a small piece of property.

This four-story house features 1 bed, 1 bath. The total living space is 1166 sq. ft. The bedroom is 800 sq ft. There are only 4 doors in the entire house.

The House spans 10.4 feet at the widest point.

You can only enter the house in the back alley. Did you notice that there's no front door on Hull Street?

The house was Last sold on May 18, 2017 for $900,000 or $771 a sq ft. Today the house is valued at $1,044,111. At one time you could rent this property for $2,500 a month.

Today as you walk by the house you'll see a sign that reads, "The Skinny House (Spite House) Est. 1862." The term Spite House refers to how Joseph Eustis built the house to irritate his brothers for not leaving him enough land. Instead of keeping the space empty he built a house to block the sun from his brother's house.

November 28, 2019

JFK Thanksgiving Proclamation

The 35th President of the United States gave the following Thanksgiving Proclamation 57 years ago:

Over three centuries ago in Plymouth, on Massachusetts Bay, the Pilgrims established the custom of gathering together each year to express their gratitude to God for the preservation of their community and for the harvests their labors brought forth in the new land. Joining with their neighbors, they shared together and worshipped together in a common giving of thanks. Thanksgiving Day has ever since been part of the fabric which has united Americans with their past, with each other and with the future of all mankind.

It is fitting that we observe this year our own day of thanksgiving. It is fitting that we give our thanks for the safety of our land, for the fertility of our harvests, for the strength of our liberties, for the health of our people. We do so in no spirit of self-righteousness. We recognize that we are the beneficiaries of the toil and devotion of our fathers and that we can pass their legacy on to our children only by equal toil and equal devotion. We recognize too that we live in a world of peril and change--and in so uncertain a time we are all the more grateful for the indestructible gifts of hope and love, which sustain us in adversity and inspire us to labor unceasingly for a more perfect community within this nation and around the earth.

Now, Therefore, I, John F. Kennedy, President of the United States of America, in accord with the joint resolution of Congress, approved December 26, 1941, which designates the fourth Thursday in November of each year as Thanksgiving Day, do hereby proclaim Thursday, the twenty-second day of November of this year, as a day of national thanksgiving.

I urge that all observe this day with reverence and with humility.

Let us renew the spirit of the Pilgrims at the first Thanksgiving, lonely in an inscrutable wilderness, facing the dark unknown with a faith borne of their dedication to God and a fortitude drawn from their sense that all men were brothers.

Let us renew that spirit by offering our thanks for uncovenanted mercies, beyond our desert or merit, and by resolving to meet the responsibilities placed upon us.

Let us renew that spirit by sharing the abundance of this day with those less fortunate, in our own land and abroad. Let us renew that spirit by seeking always to establish larger communities of brotherhood.

Let us renew that spirit by preparing our souls for the incertitude's ahead--by being always ready to confront crisis with steadfastness and achievement with grace and modesty.

Let us renew that spirit by concerting our energy and our hope with men and women everywhere that the world may move more rapidly toward the time when Thanksgiving may be a day of universal celebration.

Let us renew that spirit by expressing our acceptance of the limitations of human striving and by affirming our duty to strive nonetheless, as Providence may direct us, toward a better world for all mankind.

In Witness Whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of the United States of America to be affixed.

DONE at the City of Washington this 7th day of November, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and sixty-two, and of the Independence of the United States of America the one hundred and eighty-seventh.