Support for Military Action if diplomatic efforts fail
  • Argentina
  • Australia
  • Canada
  • Czech Republic
  • Denmark
  • Germany
  • Hungry
  • Kuwait
  • The Netherlands
  • New Zealand
  • Poland
  • Portugal
  • Spain
  • United States
  • United Kingdom
Countries that against any use of force
  • China
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Qatar
  • France
  • Russia

The Resolution that Iraq Disagrees over

                                                             S/RES/687 (1991)
                                                             8 April 1991

                             RESOLUTION 687 (1991)

             Adopted by the Security Council at its 2981st meeting,
                                on 3 April 1991

      The Security Council,

      Recalling its resolutions 660 (1990) of 2 August 1990, 661 (1990) of 6
 August 1990, 662 (1990) of 9 August 1990, 664 (1990) of 18 August 1990, 665
 (1990) of 25 August 1990, 666 (1990) of 13 September 1990, 667 (1990) of 16
 September 1990, 669 (1990) of 24 September 1990, 670 (1990) of 25 September
 1990, 674 (1990) of 29 October 1990, 677 (1990) of 28 November 1990, 678 (1990)
 of 29 November 1990 and 686 (1991) of 2 March 1991,

      Welcoming the restoration to Kuwait of its sovereignty, independence and
 territorial integrity and the return of its legitimate Government,

      Affirming the commitment of all Member States to the sovereignty,
 territorial integrity and political independence of Kuwait and Iraq, and noting
 the intention expressed by the Member States cooperating with Kuwait under
 paragraph 2 of resolution 678 (1990) to bring their military presence in Iraq
 to an end as soon as possible consistent with paragraph 8 of resolution 686
 (1991),

      Reaffirming the need to be assured of Iraq's peaceful intentions in the
 light of its unlawful invasion and occupation of Kuwait,

      Taking note of the letter sent by the Minister for Foreign Affairs of Iraq
 on 27 February 1991 and those sent pursuant to resolution 686 (1991),

      Noting that Iraq and Kuwait, as independent sovereign States, signed at
 Baghdad on 4 October 1963 "Agreed Minutes Between the State of Kuwait and the
 Republic of Iraq Regarding the Restoration of Friendly Relations, Recognition
 and Related Matters", thereby recognizing formally the boundary between Iraq
 and Kuwait and the allocation of islands, which were registered with the United
 Nations in accordance with Article 102 of the Charter of the United Nations and
 in which Iraq recognized the independence and complete sovereignty of the State
 of Kuwait within its borders as specified and accepted in the letter of the
 Prime Minister of Iraq dated 21 July 1932, and as accepted by the Ruler of
 Kuwait in his letter dated 10 August 1932,

      Conscious of the need for demarcation of the said boundary,

      Conscious also of the statements by Iraq threatening to use weapons in
 violation of its obligations under the Geneva Protocol for the Prohibition of
 the Use in War of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or Other Gases, and of
 Bacteriological Methods of Warfare, signed at Geneva on 17 June 1925, and of
 its prior use of chemical weapons and affirming that grave consequences would
 follow any further use by Iraq of such weapons,

      Recalling that Iraq has subscribed to the Declaration adopted by all
 States participating in the Conference of States Parties to the 1925 Geneva
 Protocol and Other Interested States, held in Paris from 7 to 11 January 1989,
 establishing the objective of universal elimination of chemical and biological
 weapons,

      Recalling also that Iraq has signed the Convention on the Prohibition of
 the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and
 Toxin Weapons and on Their Destruction, of 10 April 1972,

      Noting the importance of Iraq ratifying this Convention,

      Noting moreover the importance of all States adhering to this Convention
 and encouraging its forthcoming Review Conference to reinforce the authority,
 efficiency and universal scope of the convention,

      Stressing the importance of an early conclusion by the Conference on
 Disarmament of its work on a Convention on the Universal Prohibition of
 Chemical Weapons and of universal adherence thereto,

      Aware of the use by Iraq of ballistic missiles in unprovoked attacks and
 therefore of the need to take specific measures in regard to such missiles
 located in Iraq,

      Concerned by the reports in the hands of Member States that Iraq has
 attempted to acquire materials for a nuclear-weapons programme contrary to its
 obligations under the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons of 1
 July 1968,

      Recalling the objective of the establishment of a nuclear-weapons-free
 zone in the region of the Middle East,

      Conscious of the threat that all weapons of mass destruction pose to peace
 and security in the area and of the need to work towards the establishment in
 the Middle East of a zone free of such weapons,

      Conscious also of the objective of achieving balanced and comprehensive
 control of armaments in the region,

      Conscious further of the importance of achieving the objectives noted
 above using all available means, including a dialogue among the States of the
 region,

      Noting that resolution 686 (1991) marked the lifting of the measures
 imposed by resolution 661 (1990) in so far as they applied to Kuwait,

      Noting that despite the progress being made in fulfilling the obligations
 of resolution 686 (1991), many Kuwaiti and third country nationals are still
 not accounted for and property remains unreturned,

      Recalling the International Convention against the Taking of Hostages,
 opened for signature at New York on 18 December 1979, which categorizes all
 acts of taking hostages as manifestations of international terrorism,

      Deploring threats made by Iraq during the recent conflict to make use of
 terrorism against targets outside Iraq and the taking of hostages by Iraq,

      Taking note with grave concern of the reports of the Secretary-General of
 20 March 1991 and 28 March 1991, and conscious of the necessity to meet
 urgently the humanitarian needs in Kuwait and Iraq,

      Bearing in mind its objective of restoring international peace and
 security in the area as set out in recent resolutions of the Security Council,

      Conscious of the need to take the following measures acting under Chapter
 VII of the Charter,

      1.   Affirms all thirteen resolutions noted above, except as expressly
 changed below to achieve the goals of this resolution, including a formal
 cease-fire;
                                       A

      2.   Demands that Iraq and Kuwait respect the inviolability of the
 international boundary and the allocation of islands set out in the "Agreed
 Minutes Between the State of Kuwait and the Republic of Iraq Regarding the
 Restoration of Friendly Relations, Recognition and Related Matters", signed by
 them in the exercise of their sovereignty at Baghdad on 4 October 1963 and
 registered with the United Nations and published by the United Nations in
 document 7063, United Nations, Treaty Series, 1964;

      3.   Calls upon the Secretary-General to lend his assistance to make
 arrangements with Iraq and Kuwait to demarcate the boundary between Iraq and
 Kuwait, drawing on appropriate material, including the map transmitted by
 Security Council document S/22412 and to report back to the Security Council
 within one month;

      4.   Decides to guarantee the inviolability of the above-mentioned
 international boundary and to take as appropriate all necessary measures to
 that end in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations;

                                       B

      5.   Requests the Secretary-General, after consulting with Iraq and
 Kuwait, to submit within three days to the Security Council for its approval a
 plan for the immediate deployment of a United Nations observer unit to monitor
 the Khor Abdullah and a demilitarized zone, which is hereby established,
 extending ten kilometres into Iraq and five kilometres into Kuwait from the
 boundary referred to in the "Agreed Minutes Between the State of Kuwait and the
 Republic of Iraq Regarding the Restoration of Friendly Relations, Recognition
 and Related Matters" of 4 October 1963; to deter violations of the boundary
 through its presence in and surveillance of the demilitarized zone; to observe
 any hostile or potentially hostile action mounted from the territory of one
 State to the other; and for the Secretary-General to report regularly to the
 Security Council on the operations of the unit, and immediately if there are
 serious violations of the zone or potential threats to peace;

      6.   Notes that as soon as the Secretary-General notifies the Security
 Council of the completion of the deployment of the United Nations observer
 unit, the conditions will be established for the Member States cooperating with
 Kuwait in accordance with resolution 678 (1990) to bring their military
 presence in Iraq to an end consistent with resolution 686 (1991);

                                       C

      7.   Invites Iraq to reaffirm unconditionally its obligations under the
 Geneva Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating,
 Poisonous or Other Gases, and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare, signed at
 Geneva on 17 June 1925, and to ratify the Convention on the Prohibition of the
 Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and
 Toxin Weapons and on Their Destruction, of 10 April 1972;

      8.   Decides that Iraq shall unconditionally accept the destruction,
 removal, or rendering harmless, under international supervision, of:

      (a)  All chemical and biological weapons and all stocks of agents and all
 related subsystems and components and all research, development, support and
 manufacturing facilities;

      (b)  All ballistic missiles with a range greater than 150 kilometres and
 related major parts, and repair and production facilities;

      9.   Decides, for the implementation of paragraph 8 above, the following:

      (a)  Iraq shall submit to the Secretary-General, within fifteen days of
 the adoption of the present resolution, a declaration of the locations, amounts
 and types of all items specified in paragraph 8 and agree to urgent, on-site
 inspection as specified below;

      (b)  The Secretary-General, in consultation with the appropriate
 Governments and, where appropriate, with the Director-General of the World
 Health Organization, within forty-five days of the passage of the present
 resolution, shall develop, and submit to the Council for approval, a plan
 calling for the completion of the following acts within forty-five days of such
 approval:

      (i)  The forming of a Special Commission, which shall carry out immediate
           on-site inspection of Iraq's biological, chemical and missile
           capabilities, based on Iraq's declarations and the designation of any
           additional locations by the Special Commission itself;

     (ii)  The yielding by Iraq of possession to the Special Commission for
           destruction, removal or rendering harmless, taking into account the
           requirements of public safety, of all items specified under paragraph
           8 (a) above, including items at the additional locations designated
           by the Special Commission under paragraph 9 (b) (i) above and the
           destruction by Iraq, under the supervision of the Special Commission,
           of all its missile capabilities, including launchers, as specified
           under paragraph 8 (b) above;

    (iii)  The provision by the Special Commission of the assistance and
           cooperation to the Director-General of the International Atomic
           Energy Agency required in paragraphs 12 and 13 below;

      10.  Decides that Iraq shall unconditionally undertake not to use,
 develop, construct or acquire any of the items specified in paragraphs 8 and 9
 above and requests the Secretary-General, in consultation with the Special
 Commission, to develop a plan for the future ongoing monitoring and
 verification of Iraq's compliance with this paragraph, to be submitted to the
 Security Council for approval within one hundred and twenty days of the passage
 of this resolution;

      11.  Invites Iraq to reaffirm unconditionally its obligations under the
 Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons of 1 July 1968;

      12.  Decides that Iraq shall unconditionally agree not to acquire or
 develop nuclear weapons or nuclear-weapons-usable material or any subsystems or
 components or any research, development, support or manufacturing facilities
 related to the above; to submit to the Secretary-General and the
 Director-General of the International Atomic Energy Agency within fifteen days
 of the adoption of the present resolution a declaration of the locations,
 amounts, and types of all items specified above; to place all of its
 nuclear-weapons-usable materials under the exclusive control, for custody and
 removal, of the International Atomic Energy Agency, with the assistance and
 cooperation of the Special Commission as provided for in the plan of the
 Secretary-General discussed in paragraph 9 (b) above; to accept, in accordance
 with the arrangements provided for in paragraph 13 below, urgent on-site
 inspection and the destruction, removal or rendering harmless as appropriate of
 all items specified above; and to accept the plan discussed in paragraph 13
 below for the future ongoing monitoring and verification of its compliance with
 these undertakings;

      13.  Requests the Director-General of the International Atomic Energy
 Agency, through the Secretary-General, with the assistance and cooperation of
 the Special Commission as provided for in the plan of the Secretary-General in
 paragraph 9 (b) above, to carry out immediate on-site inspection of Iraq's
 nuclear capabilities based on Iraq's declarations and the designation of any
 additional locations by the Special Commission; to develop a plan for
 submission to the Security Council within forty-five days calling for the
 destruction, removal, or rendering harmless as appropriate of all items listed
 in paragraph 12 above; to carry out the plan within forty-five days following
 approval by the Security Council; and to develop a plan, taking into account
 the rights and obligations of Iraq under the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of
 Nuclear Weapons of 1 July 1968, for the future ongoing monitoring and
 verification of Iraq's compliance with paragraph 12 above, including an
 inventory of all nuclear material in Iraq subject to the Agency's verification
 and inspections to confirm that Agency safeguards cover all relevant nuclear
 activities in Iraq, to be submitted to the Security Council for approval within
 one hundred and twenty days of the passage of the present resolution;

      14.  Takes note that the actions to be taken by Iraq in paragraphs 8, 9,
 10, 11, 12 and 13 of the present resolution represent steps towards the goal of
 establishing in the Middle East a zone free from weapons of mass destruction
 and all missiles for their delivery and the objective of a global ban on
 chemical weapons;
                                       D

      15.  Requests the Secretary-General to report to the Security Council on
 the steps taken to facilitate the return of all Kuwaiti property seized by
 Iraq, including a list of any property that Kuwait claims has not been returned
 or which has not been returned intact;

                                       E

      16.  Reaffirms that Iraq, without prejudice to the debts and obligations
 of Iraq arising prior to 2 August 1990, which will be addressed through the
 normal mechanisms, is liable under international law for any direct loss,
 damage, including environmental damage and the depletion of natural resources,
 or injury to foreign Governments, nationals and corporations, as a result of
 Iraq's unlawful invasion and occupation of Kuwait;

      17.  Decides that all Iraqi statements made since 2 August 1990
 repudiating its foreign debt are null and void, and demands that Iraq adhere
 scrupulously to all of its obligations concerning servicing and repayment of
 its foreign debt;

      18.  Decides also to create a fund to pay compensation for claims that
 fall within paragraph 16 above and to establish a Commission that will
 administer the fund;

      19.  Directs the Secretary-General to develop and present to the Security
 Council for decision, no later than thirty days following the adoption of the
 present resolution, recommendations for the fund to meet the requirement for
 the payment of claims established in accordance with paragraph 18 above and for
 a programme to implement the decisions in paragraphs 16, 17 and 18 above,
 including:  administration of the fund; mechanisms for determining the
 appropriate level of Iraq's contribution to the fund based on a percentage of
 the value of the exports of petroleum and petroleum products from Iraq not to
 exceed a figure to be suggested to the Council by the Secretary-General, taking
 into account the requirements of the people of Iraq, Iraq's payment capacity as
 assessed in conjunction with the international financial institutions taking
 into consideration external debt service, and the needs of the Iraqi economy;
 arrangements for ensuring that payments are made to the fund; the process by
 which funds will be allocated and claims paid; appropriate procedures for
 evaluating losses, listing claims and verifying their validity and resolving
 disputed claims in respect of Iraq's liability as specified in paragraph 16
 above; and the composition of the Commission designated above;

                                       F

      20.  Decides, effective immediately, that the prohibitions against the
 sale or supply to Iraq of commodities or products, other than medicine and
 health supplies, and prohibitions against financial transactions related
 thereto contained in resolution 661 (1990) shall not apply to foodstuffs
 notified to the Security Council Committee established by resolution 661 (1990)
 concerning the situation between Iraq and Kuwait or, with the approval of that
 Committee, under the simplified and accelerated "no-objection" procedure, to
 materials and supplies for essential civilian needs as identified in the report
 of the Secretary-General dated 20 March 1991, and in any further findings of
 humanitarian need by the Committee;

      21.  Decides that the Security Council shall review the provisions of
 paragraph 20 above every sixty days in the light of the policies and practices
 of the Government of Iraq, including the implementation of all relevant
 resolutions of the Security Council, for the purpose of determining whether to
 reduce or lift the prohibitions referred to therein;

      22.  Decides that upon the approval by the Security Council of the
 programme called for in paragraph 19 above and upon Council agreement that Iraq
 has completed all actions contemplated in paragraphs 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 and 13
 above, the prohibitions against the import of commodities and products
 originating in Iraq and the prohibitions against financial transactions related
 thereto contained in resolution 661 (1990) shall have no further force or
 effect;

      23.  Decides that, pending action by the Security Council under paragraph
 22 above, the Security Council Committee established by resolution 661 (1990)
 shall be empowered to approve, when required to assure adequate financial
 resources on the part of Iraq to carry out the activities under paragraph 20
 above, exceptions to the prohibition against the import of commodities and
 products originating in Iraq;

      24.  Decides that, in accordance with resolution 661 (1990) and subsequent
 related resolutions and until a further decision is taken by the Security
 Council, all States shall continue to prevent the sale or supply, or the
 promotion or facilitation of such sale or supply, to Iraq by their nationals,
 or from their territories or using their flag vessels or aircraft, of:

      (a)  Arms and related materiel of all types, specifically including the
 sale or transfer through other means of all forms of conventional military
 equipment, including for paramilitary forces, and spare parts and components
 and their means of production, for such equipment;

      (b)  Items specified and defined in paragraphs 8 and 12 above not
 otherwise covered above;

      (c)  Technology under licensing or other transfer arrangements used in the
 production, utilization or stockpiling of items specified in subparagraphs (a)
 and (b) above;

      (d)  Personnel or materials for training or technical support services
 relating to the design, development, manufacture, use, maintenance or support
 of items specified in subparagraphs (a) and (b) above;

      25.  Calls upon all States and international organizations to act strictly
 in accordance with paragraph 24 above, notwithstanding the existence of any
 contracts, agreements, licences or any other arrangements;

      26.  Requests the Secretary-General, in consultation with appropriate
 Governments, to develop within sixty days, for the approval of the Security
 Council, guidelines to facilitate full international implementation of
 paragraphs 24 and 25 above and paragraph 27 below, and to make them available
 to all States and to establish a procedure for updating these guidelines
 periodically;

      27.  Calls upon all States to maintain such national controls and
 procedures and to take such other actions consistent with the guidelines to be
 established by the Security Council under paragraph 26 above as may be
 necessary to ensure compliance with the terms of paragraph 24 above, and calls
 upon international organizations to take all appropriate steps to assist in
 ensuring such full compliance;

      28.  Agrees to review its decisions in paragraphs 22, 23, 24 and 25 above,
 except for the items specified and defined in paragraphs 8 and 12 above, on a
 regular basis and in any case one hundred and twenty days following passage of
 the present resolution, taking into account Iraq's compliance with the
 resolution and general progress towards the control of armaments in the region;

      29.  Decides that all States, including Iraq, shall take the necessary
 measures to ensure that no claim shall lie at the instance of the Government of
 Iraq, or of any person or body in Iraq, or of any person claiming through or
 for the benefit of any such person or body, in connection with any contract or
 other transaction where its performance was affected by reason of the measures
 taken by the Security Council in resolution 661 (1990) and related resolutions;

                                       G

      30.  Decides that, in furtherance of its commitment to facilitate the
 repatriation of all Kuwaiti and third country nationals, Iraq shall extend all
 necessary cooperation to the International Committee of the Red Cross,
 providing lists of such persons, facilitating the access of the International
 Committee of the Red Cross to all such persons wherever located or detained and
 facilitating the search by the International Committee of the Red Cross for
 those Kuwaiti and third country nationals still unaccounted for;

      31.  Invites the International Committee of the Red Cross to keep the
 Secretary-General apprised as appropriate of all activities undertaken in
 connection with facilitating the repatriation or return of all Kuwaiti and
 third country nationals or their remains present in Iraq on or after 2 August
 1990;
                                       H

      32.  Requires Iraq to inform the Security Council that it will not commit
 or support any act of international terrorism or allow any organization
 directed towards commission of such acts to operate within its territory and to
 condemn unequivocally and renounce all acts, methods and practices of
 terrorism;
                                       I

      33.  Declares that, upon official notification by Iraq to the
 Secretary-General and to the Security Council of its acceptance of the
 provisions above, a formal cease-fire is effective between Iraq and Kuwait and
 the Member States cooperating with Kuwait in accordance with resolution 678
 (1990);

      34.  Decides to remain seized of the matter and to take such further steps
 as may be required for the implementation of the present resolution and to
 secure peace and security in the area.

.