But the police forces of America are losing, not gaining, members. This is, we think, an entirely new development.
Then Zimbardo smashed part of it with a sledgehammer. Young men are more frequently attacked than older women, not because they are easier or more lucrative targets but because they are on the streets more. But it could be.
One beat was typical: a busy but dilapidated area in the heart of Newark, with many abandoned buildings, marginal shops (several of which prominently displayed knives and straight-edged razors in their windows), one large department store, and, most important, a train station and several major bus stops. But two things must be borne in mind. The people expect the police to "do something" about this, and the police are determined to do just that.
Some neighborhoods are so demoralized and crime-ridden as to make foot patrol useless; the best the police can do with limited resources is respond to the enormous number of calls for service.
Meetings between teenagers who like to hang out on a particular corner and adults who want to use that corner might well lead to an amicable agreement on a set of rules about how many people can be allowed to congregate, where, and when. Though it is not inevitable, it is more likely that here, rather than in places where people are confident they can regulate public behavior by informal controls, drugs will change hands, prostitutes will solicit, and cars will be stripped.
An ambiguous case, reported in The Wall Street Journal involved a citizens' patrol in the Silver Lake area of Belleville, New Jersey. Adults stop scolding rowdy children; the children, emboldened, become more rowdy. If the neighborhood cannot keep a bothersome panhandler from annoying passersby, the thief may reason, it is even less likely to call the police to identify a potential mugger or to interfere if the mugging actually takes place.
The unchecked panhandler is, in effect, the first broken window. For centuries, the role of the police as watchmen was judged primarily not in terms of its compliance with appropriate procedures but rather in terms of its attaining a desired objective. Not violent people, nor, necessarily, criminals, but disreputable or obstreperous or unpredictable people: panhandlers, drunks, addicts, rowdy teenagers, prostitutes, loiterers, the mentally disturbed.
The police may well have become better crime-fighters as a result. Today, the atmosphere has changed. Ironically, avoiding responsibility is easier when a lot of people are standing about. The people on the street were primarily black; the officer who walked the street was white. Persons who broke the informal rules, especially those who bothered people waiting at bus stops, were arrested for vagrancy.
The door and the window exclude the approaching citizen; they are a barrier. These findings may be taken as evidence that the skeptics were right- foot patrol has no effect on crime; it merely fools the citizens into thinking that they are safer.
For another, no citizen in a neighborhood, even an organized one, is likely to feel the sense of responsibility that wearing a badge confers.
© 2013 The above article was randomly created is a copyright of cryan.com. All rights reserved. This creative Random text was created exclusively for you by using a PHP computer program by randomizing 283 sentences of the Broken Window story by James Q. Wilson and George L. Kelling.